As we saw on Sunday, these are the previous questions set for this topic:
What impact does the increase in global media have on media audiences?
What impact does the increase in global media have on media production?
What impact does the increase in global media have on local identity?
To what extent are the media now more global than local or national?
Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalisation of the media.
Discuss the idea that the media is becoming increasingly global.
As you can see, though there is some variation between questions, some have very similar wording. However, don't get a shock if the wording is different in the exam this summer! There is a limit to how many questions can be on 'impact'!
If we look at the bullet points in the Specification, which defines what should be studied, we should be able to see what kinds of question can come up:
• What kinds of media are increasingly global in terms of production and distribution? (production question above)
• How have global media developed, in historical terms, and how inclusive is this trend in reality? (questions on audiences and local identity above)
• What kinds of audience behaviour and consumption are increasingly global? (audiences above)
• What are the arguments for and against global media, in relation to content, access,
representation and identity? (probably the last three above)
the kinds of thing you are expected to know about would include:
film: debates around cultural imperialism- why do countries need their own cinema rather than just US products?
television and national versus imported broadcasting- what difference does having your own national tv stations make?
national press in relation to global news provision- do you get different stories or different versions of stories in local national media?
media marketing aimed at cross- national territories- how media products are global
examples of media that contradict theories of globalisation
other examples of global media practices.
It is pretty open in terms of what you might have studied, so I would expect answers to draw upon very different case study material.
This part of the exam asks you to do three more specific things, whatever topic you answer on:
1. You MUST refer to at least TWO different media
2. You MUST refer to past, present and future (with the emphasis on the present- contemporary examples from the past five years)
3. refer to critical/theoretical positions
So for 1. you might have one online case study example and one about cinema, or one about news in the press and one about news on TV.
For 2. the main thing is to ensure you have a majority of material from the past five years. If you are stuck for this, have a look at the Cuba Tweets case study below. For some reference to the future, you could talk about how globalisation is likely to continue as more and more material goes online and connections get faster and more countries have wider web access and speculate a little about what this might mean.
For 3. you need some critics/writers who have developed ideas about global media- there are a lot of people you could draw upon, so hopefully you have studied some with your teachers.
You can't cover everything in this exam, as you only have an hour, so you need to be selective and very systematic in your answer. You need to ask yourself what you do and don't understand and to concentrate on improving those areas you are going to write about and having examples to back up your points.
Cuba Tweets Case study- over the past few weeks, Julian McDougall has been tweeting useful links which could be used in a case study in the exam for Global media (although WeMedia and Online Age would probably work too). Follow him on twitter to catch them all, but here are some of his links- no need to use them all, but you'll learn a lot just by reading/watching it all!:
Cuban Media tweet-study starting point = Democracy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=poO5BgU2PZo&feature=related
Cuban Media tweet-study: Rough Guide on Media in Cuba: http://tiny.cc/4hw3n
Cuban Media tweet-study: Richard Gott on Cuba + US: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/jan/02/barack-obama-cuba-fidel-castro
Cuban Media tweet study - Granma (state controlled newspaper): http://www.granma.cu/ingles/
Cuban Media tweet study - Accessible Chomsky to 'apply' to contemporary Cuba: http://tinyurl.com/4jyfe7o
Cuban Media tweet study - Internet in Cuba: http://opennet.net/sites/opennet.net/files/cuba.pdf
Cuban Media tweet study: Strawberry and Chocolate: https://www.msu.edu/~colmeiro/alea.html Important film for Cuba, identity, tolerance.
Cuban Media tweet study: Cuba Va (young Cubans, self-representation, identity - 1990s). http://history.sundance.org/films/204
Cuban Media tweet study - state use of internet: http://monthlyreview.org/castro/
Cuban Media tweet study: Castro on Wikileaks http://links.org.au/node/2049 + recommend Jose Bell Lara's work for gobalisation / Cuba.
Cuban Media tweet study - more 'global' context: http://cubasolidaritycampaign.blogspot.com/2011/02/cuban-revolution-in-21st-century-by.html
Cuban Media tweet study - Generacion Y blog: http://tinyurl.com/6cw74mj Acclaimed 'citizen journalist' from Cuba.
Cuban Media tweet study - Venegas, recommended: http://www.lybrary.com/digital-dilemmas-state-individual-digital-media-cuba-p-75237.html
Cuban Media tweet study: Classic theory to 'apply': http://www.openculture.com/2010/04/marshall_mcluhan_the_world_is_a_global_village_.html
Cuban Media tweet study: Literacy levels in Cuba (important context for global media etc): http://tinyurl.com/5u52skc
Cuban Media tweet study: Cuban film, ideology, history: http://www.publicacions.ub.es/bibliotecaDigital/cinema/filmhistoria/Art.%20Mraz.pdf
Cuban Media tweet study: Guerilla Radio (the Cuban Hip Hop "struggle under Castro"): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-rDkhIvR_4
Cuban Media tweet study: Wendy Chun 'Control + Freedom' - good framework to apply to Cuban internet: http://tinyurl.com/3du89j4
Cuban Media tweet study: Elian - article on 'virtualisation': http://journal.media-culture.org.au/0411/16-allatson.php
Cuban Media tweet study: telenovellas (soaps) as springboard for public debate - http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=42978
Cuban Media tweet study: re Generacion Y (see previous tweet)
TOMORROW: Collective identity